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           Knowledge Management - Gestão do Conhecimento
  • Knowledge Management : Paper & Articles
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      • Designing Organizational Memory: Preserving Intellectual Assets in a Knowledge Economy E. Jeffrey Conklin, PhD, (Corporate Memory Systems, Inc., 1996)
        • Abstract: Knowledge management is an essential capability in the emerging knowledge economy. In particular,organizations have a valuable asset in the informal knowledge that is the daily currency of their knowledge workers, but this asset usually lives only in the collective human memory, and thus is poorly preserved and managed. There are significant technical and cultural barriers to capturing informal knowledge and making it explicit. Groupware tools such as E-mail and Lotus Notes tend to make informal knowledge explicit, but they generally fail to create a coherent organizational memory. On the other hand, attempts to build organizational memory systems have generally failed because they required some additional documentation effort with no clear short term benefit, or, like groupware, they did not provide an effective index or structure to the mass of information collected in the system. This paper explores the design of an organizational memory system that overcomes the barriers to capturing informal knowledge. The key component of this design is the use of a display system which captures the key issues and ideas during meetings and creates shared understanding in a knowledge team. The paper briefly describes a display system, QuestMap, which uses hypertext to capture the thinking and learning in large, complex projects. The paper ends with a few examples of this kind of organizational memory system in action.
      • Distributed Knowledge Modeling through the World Wide Web By Mildred L. G. Shaw and Brian R. Gaines; Knowledge Science Institute, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4, {mildred, gaines}@cpsc.ucalgary.ca
        • Abstract: Knowledge modeling involves the management of many knowledge sources often geographically distributed. The World Wide Web is a distributed hypermedia system available internationally through the Internet. It provides general-purpose client-server technology which supports interaction through documents with embedded graphic user interfaces. This article reports on the development of knowledge modeling tools operating through the web to support knowledge acquisition, representation and inference through semantic networks and repertory grids. It illustrates how web technology provides a new knowledge medium in which artificial intelligence methodologies and systems can be integrated with hypermedia systems to support the knowledge processes of professional communities world wide.
      • A Dynamic Theory of Organizational Knowledge Creation By: Ikujiro Nonaka Organizational Science/Vol.5, No.1, February 1994 Summarized by: René Roth
        • The introduction to this paper states: "While much has been written about the importance of organizational learning, very little has been written about the creation of knowledge within an organization. This paper goes beyond the notions of "organizational learning" and concentrates on the more wide-ranging concept of "organizational knowledge creation". The theory explains how knowledge held by individuals, organizations and/or societies can both be "enlarged and enriched through spiral, interactive amplification of tacit and explicit knowledge held by individuals, organizations and societies". It is these interactions between tacit and explicit knowledge that creates knowledge. While the paper stresses the importance of individuals in knowledge creation, Nonaka argues that organizations play a crucial role in promoting this knowledge. This knowledge can further be enhanced by interactions with suppliers, customers outside the organization. Nonaka goes into considerable detail discussing the theories of knowledge and knowledge creation as pertaining to individuals then takes them one step further to the organizational level to develop his theory. The paper proposes a new model of management called "middle-up-down management" to implement more effective knowledge creation. To effectively carry out his new management model, Nonaka introduces the concept of the "hypertext" organization (basically a combination of the hierarchial and flat, organic organizational models)"
      • Kelly's "Geometry of Psychological Space" and its Significance for Cognitive Modeling, Mildred L G Shaw and Brian R Gaines, The New Psychologist, 23-31, October, 1992.
        • Personal construct psychology is a theory of individual and group psychological and social processes that takes a constructivist position in modeling human knowledge but bases this on a positivist scientific position that characterizes conceptual structures in axiomatic terms. It provides a fundamental framework for both theoretical and applied studies of knowledge acquisition and representation. This paper presents Kelly's original intuitions underlying personal construct psychology and links these to its foundational role in cognitive and computational knowledge representation.
      • Eliciting Knowledge and Transferring it Effectively to a Knowledge-Based System, Brian R Gaines and Mildred L G Shaw, IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 5(1) 4-14, 1993.
        • Knowledge acquisition research supports the generation of knowledge-based systems through the development of principles, techniques, methodologies and tools. What differentiates knowledge-based system development from conventional system development is the emphasis on in-depth understanding and formalization of the relations between the conceptual structures underlying expert performance and the computational structures capable of emulating that performance. Personal construct psychology is a theory of individual and group psychological and social processes that has been used extensively in knowledge acquisition research to model the cognitive processes of human experts. The psychology takes a constructivist position appropriate to the modeling of human knowledge processes but develops this through the characterization of human conceptual structures in axiomatic terms that translate directly to computational form. In particular, there is a close correspondence between the intensional logics of knowledge, belief and action developed in personal construct psychology, and the intensional logics for formal knowledge representation developed in artificial intelligence research as term subsumption, or KL-ONE-like, systems. This paper gives an overview of personal construct psychology and its expression as an intensional logic describing the cognitive processes of anticipatory agents, and uses this to survey knowledge acquisition tools deriving from personal construct psychology.
      • Guide for Creating Concept Maps (Host's note: there may be problems connecting to this paper)
        • A Short article on Developing Conceptual Maps. Concept Maps are a particularly good way to organize information about a problem or subject. Construction of concept maps helps us pull together information we already know about a subject and understand new information as we learn.
      • Here Comes SAP , Ronald B. Lieber, Madeline Jaynes (Fortune, October 2, 1995)
        • This hot new software, which keeps vital information flowing throughout your company, may be the missing link to reengineering. Here's how companies are using it to manage change
      • Information Vs. Knowledge: Small contribution to an old debate, Alain J. Godbout, GCM Sherpa Inc. Créé: 15 May, 1996
        • Alain starts this paper by saying: "In the debate of Knowledge and Information, I cannot fail to notice the growing entrenchment and polarization of ideas. On one side, we can see those who are proposing a definition which assimilates knowledge to the process of knowing (the Polyanyists) and on the other side those who subscribe to the assimilation of knowledge as superior level of information in a value chain (the Davenportists). Both schools of thought seem to be able to support their contentions, and it is difficult to arbitrate without resorting to some common grounds."
      • Intellectual Property in the Global Village, Harry Hillman Chartrand, 1995
        • ABSTRACT: In a post-Cold War world, competitiveness in the global knowledge-based economy requires better understanding of how knowledge is treated as property in the different neighbourhoods of the global village. The author outlines intellectual property rights traditions in the First, Second, Third and Fourth Worlds.
      • IT Hype and Confusion , Alain J. Godbout
        • The information technology hype can sometimes be misleading. It is often the case whenever knowledge comes into the information ressources discussion. Readers can be confused by the high degree of inconsistency in the use of the word information, and this confusions seems to have increased since the introduction of consumer level information technology.
        • The paper focus on the three dimensions of information and the technology constraint, and concludes with a section on the holy grail: knowledge technology.
      • From InfoWar to Knowledge Warfare: Preparing for the Paradigm Shift Philippe Baumard, Ph.D. Professor of Strategic Management, University of Paris-XII.
        • Successful firms, such as Intel, maintain an innovative environment, seek continuous performance improvement, favor customer orientation (e.g. through partnerships with customers and suppliers), enhance results orientation, and place speed of creation, defense and development of value-chains at the core of their strategic focus. To maintain its leadership, Intel developed "war rooms", and encouraged informal relationships that crisscrossed organizational boundaries. Nevertheless, when Intel had to face InfoWar practices, it had to acknowledge that the company failed to prevent and to anticipate large-scale Info-destabilization. New businesses live on the brink of disasters. Yet, "organizations have many stabilizers but quite often lack proper destabilizers" (1). We will argue in this paper that InfoWar (informational arena-based warfare) has been thought within the boundaries of old schemata that will no longer be accurate in the XXIst century. These schemata includes misconceptions of management, organizations, economics, welfare and of purpose of development. We will investigate, in the footsteps of Hedberg, Jonsson, Starbuck, Steele, Wilensky, and many others, design principles that worked, and no longer worked. Founding our comments on observations of real-world experiences, we end with recommendations as to prepare nations, organizations and people for the forthcoming paradigm shift: from InfoWar to Knowledge Warfare (K-Warfare).
      • Information Filters and Enhanced Reality Alexander "Sasha" Chislenko (Home and Neighborhood of Alexander (Sasha) Chislenko, 1995)
        • In this essay Sasha discusses long-term future of augmented perception.
      • Knowledge Acquisition Tools based on Personal Construct Psychology, Brian R Gaines and Mildred L G Shaw, Knowledge Engineering Review 8(1) 49-85, 1993.
        • Knowledge acquisition research supports the generation of knowledge-based systems through the development of principles, techniques, methodologies and tools. What differentiates knowledge-based system development from conventional system development is the emphasis on in-depth understanding and formalization of the relations between the conceptual structures underlying expert performance and the computational structures capable of emulating that performance. Personal construct psychology is a theory of individual and group psychological and social processes that has been used extensively in knowledge acquisition research to model the cognitive processes of human experts. The psychology takes a constructivist position appropriate to the modeling of human knowledge processes but develops this through the characterization of human conceptual structures in axiomatic terms that translate directly to computational form. In particular, there is a close correspondence between the intensional logics of knowledge, belief and action developed in personal construct psychology, and the intensional logics for formal knowledge representation developed in artificial intelligence research as term subsumption, or KL-ONE-like, systems. This paper gives an overview of personal construct psychology and its expression as an intensional logic describing the cognitive processes of anticipatory agents, and uses this to survey knowledge acquisition tools deriving from personal construct psychology.
      • Knowledge Awareness: Bridging between Shared Knowledge and Collaboration in Sharlok Hiroaki Ogata, Kenji Matsuura, and Yoneo Yano, Dept. of Information Science and Intelligent Systems, Faculty of Engineering, Tokushima University, Japan
        • Abstract: Sharlok (SHARing, Linking and lOoking-up Knowledge) has knowledge building and collaborative learning environment through sharing and looking up and linking learners' knowledge. This paper proposes a knowledge awareness(KA) for enhancing collaboration opportunities in this situation. KA plays a role of inducing collaboration by giving the learner the information about other learners' activities within a shared knowledge space. For instance, with messages as "someone is looking at the same knowledge that you are looking at.", "someone changed the knowledge which you have inputted." the learner is induced to collaborate with others who are interested in the same knowledge. The spontaneous collaboration which is created by KA, facilitates to refine and evolve both learners' knowledge and shared knowledge.
      • Knowledge Management vs Knowledge Engineering. Brian D. Newman (The Knowledge Management Forum, 1996)
        • A short position paper on the differentiation between these two fields.
      • The Knowledge Organisation, Karl-Erik Sveiby
        • The Knowledge Organisation belongs to a subgroup within the service sector. The service sector is not a discrete phenomenon but rather a spectrum of company types ranging from those organisations totally adapted to their customers - the knowledge organisations - to organisations that have refined and packaged their output. The latter have more in common with manufacturing companies.
      • Knowledge Management: Refining Roles in Scientific Communication, Richard E. Lucier, Library & Center for Knowledge Management, University of California San Francisco
        • In the abstract to this paper Richard writes, "Libraries historically have been identified with the functions of storage and retrieval. In recent years, they have expanded their role to include information transfer and the creation of the networked, digital library for information access and dissemination. More recently, the William H. Welch Medical Library (WML) of the Johns Hopkins University (JHU) has been exploring strategies to integrate the library more fully into the scholarly and scientific communication process. The result is a new role we call knowledge management".
        • This paper addresses the "I want to tell" side of knowledge management and the use of knowledge management in other than a commercial setting. The actual paper is displayed in GIF format and may not be accessable to text only www browsers.
      • Managing Knowledge in Organisations by Jinette de Gooijer
        • Notes from the workshops "Improving knowledge work processes" and "Managing knowledge and learning" held 11 and 12 January 1995, Dallas, TX. The introductions states "The two topics of these workshops are research topics in Ernst and Young's multi-client research program Mastering Information and Technology. Both are topics which are relatively young in terms of research knowledge, hence the discussions on both days often revolved around defining meaning in the terms knowledge, knowledge work, knowledge work processes and what differentiated knowledge from learning. There was universal agreement that knowledge and learning are inextricably linked.
      • On The Management of Knowledge ,Karl M. Wiig , The Wiig Group
        • In the this paper Karl states; "Knowledge - the insights, understandings, and practical know-how that we all possess -- is the fundamental resource that allows us to function intelligently. Over time, considerable knowledge is also transformed to other manifestations -- such as books, technology , practices and traditions -- within organizations of all kinds and in society in general. These transformations result in cumulated expertise and, when used appropriately , increased effectiveness. Knowledge is one, if not the, principal factor that makes personal, organizational, and societal intelligent behavior possible ".
      • Knowledge Mapping Dr. Ted Kesik, Ryerson Polytechnic University
      • Dr. Kesik prefaces this paper by saying: "Involvement in the Web has finally required that some of the ideas I have been pursuing with Professor Robert Wright from the University of Toronto be put forward for public review and comment. The concept of knowledge mapping was something that grew out of my doctoral research into knowledge based systems and expertise, and it has since been expanded and continually re-defined. It has eluded publication for these very reasons. This paper is not intended as a comprehensive treatment of the subject, but rather as a means of acquainting my colleagues with what may be a larger context for our joint efforts."
      • Position Paper on Knowledge Management By Ann Macintosh, Artificial Intelligence Applications Institute, University of Edinburgh (2 March 1995)
      • The author prefaces this paper by saying, "At the recent ISMICK'94 conference in Compiegne, I presented a paper that described the major computer-based projects being undertaken throughout the world to support the more effective use of corporate knowledge. It described how projects were: representing knowledge in a computer; providing query and manipulation of knowledge by different categories of users; allowing the sharing and re-use of knowledge between different applications; updating and maintaining the knowledge while still guaranteeing quality."
      • Networking in the Mind Age , Alexander "Sasha" Chislenko (Home and Neighborhood of Alexander (Sasha) Chislenko, 1995)
      • In this essay Sasha presents some ideas on the architecture of post-human, post-personality and post-identity intelligence,and how it will evolve. Partly based on soon-to-be published book on Mind Age by Hans Moravec.
      • SGML: It's Not Just for Documents Anymore, by Kurt W. Conrad (KM Metazine, Copyright 1995, The Sagebrush Group)

      In the introduction to this paper the author states that, "Many people mistakenly believe that SGML (the Standard Generalized Markup Language, ISO 8879) is useful only for document production. SGML can also be used for non-document applications, for example, to manage administrative and financial information data sets to support project planning, process improvement, and re-engineering efforts. SGML can help balance mechanical (efficiency-oriented) and organic (flexibility-oriented) approaches to information management, thereby contributing to the adaptability and well-being of an organization. This article looks at SGML implementation efforts at the Department of Energy's Hanford, Washington site and discusses the value of the standard for managing information in a changing organizational environment."

      This article is a revision of work previously prepared by the author while employed by Boeing Computer Services, Richland. It was published November 1994 in The Proceedings of SGML `94 and was presented at SGML `94, Vienna, Virginia, November 6-11, 1994. It was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management and Westinghouse Hanford Company, the Hanford Operations and Engineering Contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC06-87RL10930. It was assigned document number WHC-SA-2717-FP and approved for public release.

      • Trying To Grasp The Intangible , Thomeas A. Stewart (Fortune, October 2, 1995).
      • The assets that really count are the ones accountants can't count--yet. Here's one way to put a dollar value on corporate knowledge.
      • The Value Of Computers, Information and Knowledge, Paul A. Strassmann, January 30, 1996
      • Despite much talk about the "information age" or the "knowledge-based enterprise" there are no generally accepted principles to guide executives in reconciling the euphoric promises of the computer advocates and their staff's ability to prove that information technology investments are profitable. This article will present a number of perspectives from which to judge the value of information-related expenses.